Tagion FAQ (Legacy)

Does sharding work?

Sharding is a method of splitting and storing a single logical dataset in multiple databases. By distributing the data among multiple machines, a cluster of database systems can store larger dataset and handle additional requests. Sharding is necessary if a dataset is too large to be stored in a single database.

In many databases, sharding is a first-class concept, and the database knows how to store and retrieve data within a cluster. Tagion uses sharding to secure data so we can prove that we have the correct data. The optimized performance is a side effect.

What other crypto projects are utilising sharding?

Almost all modern databases including Tagion’s DART are natively sharded. Cassandra, HBase, HDFS, and MongoDB are popular distributed databases. Notable examples of non-sharded modern databases are SQLite, Redis (spec in progress), Memcached, and Zookeeper.

What does DAG stand for?

The Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) DLT is a solution that offers the benefits of blockchain with better performance.

The idea of a Directed Acyclic Graph is by no means a new one. In mathematics, a DAG is a graph that travels in one direction without cycles connecting the other edges. This means that it is impossible to traverse the entire graph starting at one edge. The edges of the directed graph only go one way. The graph is a topological ordering, that keeps each track of each node.

Imagine a collection of individual transactions where each transaction is linked to at least one other transaction in the following way:

The links point in the same direction with earlier transactions linked to later transactions, and so on.

Loops are not possible. A transaction cannot loop back on itself after linking to another transaction.

The mesh of connected transactions can be represented as nodes in a graph network, in which nodes are joined to each other by links.

How is a DAG different from other distributed ledger technologies?

Practical differences between a DAG and a DLT typically include greater scalability and lower transaction fees for a DAG. They offer much higher validation speeds. In fact, whereas Bitcoin-style blockchain slows down as traffic increases.

A blockchain is a long list of blocks, so in order to find the last transaction, you need to search backwards through the whole block (this is time-consuming). To minimize this issue, a database searches for the unspent output from bitcoin transactions (UTXO) instead.

There is no mining on DAGs and therefore no need to incentivise miners through mining reward systems and thus, no need to charge users high transaction fees. No mining also means no mining equipment, the sort that you’ve undoubtedly heard uses more energy than entire nations.

With little or no transaction fees, DAGs can be used in situations where blockchain would not be feasible. A prime example is micro or nano-transactions between devices and sensors. DAGs however often contain a fee to reduce the spam and to control the supply of money.

1 Like

What is elastic money supply and how does it function?

Definition of elastic currency. : a currency that automatically increases and decreases in volume with the demands of the money. Tagion is inspired by the equation of exchange trying to maintain a stable internal price level by regulating the money supply based on the speed of money and adoption of the system. The adoption is an arbitrary measure of the underlying commodities Tagions are used to Trade. Sophisticated algorithm burns and spins of money to secure a stable value of Tagions.

What is a Dapp?

A decentralized application is a computer application that runs on a distributed computing system. DApps have been popularized by distributed ledger technologies such as the Ethereum Blockchain, where DApps are often referred to as smart contracts.

1 Like

Can I build a Dapp on Tagion?

In the classical sense: no. Tagion is optimized for token transfers and is therefore not equipped with a stateful machine. It is, however, possible to build smart contracts and run the transfer through Tagion.

Thinking out of the box: yes. It is possible to use stateless smart contracts, and they have to be compliant with Tagion. Ethereum supports state full smart contracts which makes it simple to write a smart contract that could be used.

1 Like

Who is Elinor Ostrom?

Elinor Ostrom was an American political economist whose work was associated with the New Institutional Economics and the resurgence of political economy.

In 2009, she was awarded the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for her “analysis of economic governance, especially the commons”, which she shared with Oliver E. Williamson. To date, she remains the first of only two women to win the Nobel Prize in Economics, the other being Esther Duflo.

Tagion has based much of its governing on the principles for a common that Elinor Orstrom developed.

Who is Charles Darwin?

Charles Darwin, in full Charles Robert Darwin, (born February 12, 1809, Shrewsbury, Shropshire, England—died April 19, 1882, Downe, Kent), English naturalist whose scientific theory of evolution by natural selection became the foundation of modern evolutionary studies.

Tagion has based some of its governance rules on the principles of natural selection.

Is Hashgraph patented?

No, the Hashgraph mathematical proof itself is not patented, because only inventions can be patented, not the science itself as the mathematical proof. Swirlds own the US Patent_9,646,029_B1 claiming a distributed database system that reaches consensus with a proof of stake model and the Hashgraph algorithm. Swirlds have filed the patent in the US and Australia.

The patent application got refusal in Korea and has chosen not to continue the national phase in Germany (EU).

Tagion used the math behind Hashgraph in a completely different way, in a different context, which is its P2P distributed database technology. Tagion as well filed patents in EU, that are related to the gossip and security mechanisms and the database technology.

What patents does Tagion hold?

Tagions EU patents are led in the name of its founding company I25S ApS. The patents concern 1) a database system and 2) and network gossip protocol.

The database system, which is implemented as the DART in Tagion, is a distributed database system that can efficiently search and store data based on a cryptographic hash enabling the network to execute transactions in parallel enabling performance and scalability.

The gossip protocol is an efficient way to share information among all members
of the network

What open licenses does Tagion grant?

An open license is defined to be a free patent license given to the open-source project that cannot be revoked.

All open-source projects having the same type of copyright license as the Tagion Project will as a general rule be automatically granted a free license that cannot be revoked.

Other open-source projects and projects, in general, need to apply for an open license. Projects that fork the Tagion core library would also need a license, but again, if they follow the same copyright license and conditions specified in the license, it is granted automatically.

Is Tagion GDPR compliant?

Yes, it is. You can store any data on the DART and only make it accessible for modification by the key holder. You can also store encrypted data on DART that can only be read by the holder of the decryption key. There is no implicit rules for the content of such data, except that you can create a smart contract that validates its content.

What is i25s?

I25s is the sponsor company of Tagion. Tagion has been granted irrevocable licenses to patents from i25s in order to best promote and grow the network.

Where is the Tagion domiciled?

Tagion is located in HIllerød, Denmark and has a subsidiary in Kyiv, Ukraine. As i25s is the networks sponsor they (for now) share the same offices and resources.

What is the business model behind Tagion?

The business model behind Tagion is to allow network participants, such as nodes and service providers, to make money either by being rewarded for helping with operating the network (nodes), or from earning money from services being provided on top of the network, e.g. fees and interests (service providers).

Is Tagion compliant (Financial regulation)?

Tagion follows a dualistic approach to regulation giving privacy in the network for its users, but also making it possible for the users and service providers to exchange compliance records in a seamless and efficient way, where the data is controlled by the users. By this, the service providers can cater to local regulation.

Tagion does not have embedded compliance to any jurisdiction. In that aspect, the network is totally neutral. It is the obligation of every legal entity to be compliant with its local jurisdiction.

What is KYC?

The “know your customer” or “know your client” (KYC) guidelines in financial services requires that professionals make an effort to verify the identity, suitability, and risks involved with maintaining a business relationship. The term can also refer to the bank regulations and anti-money laundering regulations that govern these activities.

KYC processes are also employed by companies of all sizes for the purpose of ensuring their proposed customers, agents, consultants, or distributors are anti-bribery compliant and are actually who they claim to be.

Banks, insurers, export creditors and other financial institutions are increasingly demanding that customers provide detailed due diligence information. Initially, these regulations were imposed only on the financial institutions but now the non-financial industry, fintech, virtual assets dealers, and even the non-profit organizations are liable to oblige.

What is an accredited investor?

An accredited investor is a person or a business entity who is allowed to deal in securities that may not be registered with financial authorities. They are entitled to such privileged access if they satisfy one (or more) requirements regarding income, net worth, asset size, governance status or professional experience.

In the U.S., the term is used by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) under Regulation D to refer to investors who are financially sophisticated and have a reduced need for the protection provided by regulatory disclosure filings. Accredited investors include natural high net worth individuals (HNWI), banks, insurance companies, brokers and trusts.

Is Tagion pursuing an ICO?